29
Mar

Zika Virus | Health Information

zika virus symptomsZika Virus | International Public Health Emergency

 

Zika Virus is a global health scare, especially for pregnant women.  Due to the October 2015 cluster of 524 cases of newborns in Brazil diagnosed with microcephaly and other neurological disorders reported in Brazil, World Health Organization (WHO) has stated that it is as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. (bit.ly/1PYrRKs)

What are the symptoms of the Zika Virus?

zika virus microcephalyWhen humans become infected, they may develop symptoms which include fever, itchy rash, headache, red eyes, joint pain, muscle pain, and temporary paralysis.  Typically, symptoms last for 2 to 7 days.  Incubation period is unknown, but ranges from a few days to a week (1.usa.gov/1MMg1Qi).

There has also been an increase in incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome that has coincided with increased incidence of Zika Virus. (bit.ly/22Tg8mx)

Pregnant women infected with the virus have had newborns with microcephaly and brain damage.  It is believed that the virus has spread from the infected mother to baby in utero and during delivery.  Zika virus has been found in the brain tissue of these infected babies.

Where Did Zika Virus Start?


zika_americas_03-18-2016_webAccording to WHO, it was originally detected in a rhesus monkey in Zika Forest, Uganda in 1947 and in humans in Nigeria in 1954 (bit.ly/1QeAEcO).  Before 2015, the virus was found in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands.  Currently, there are many countries around the world with local mosquito-borne Zika virus disease cases as noted on the CDC website at 1.usa.gov/1Mv4zhb  Currently, countries affected by local transmission include Aruba, Barbados, Bolivia, Bonaire, Brazil, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curacao, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sint Maarten, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Venezuela).

 Is Zika Virus in the United States?

zika-by-state-report_03-23-2016_webYes.  However, only travel associated cases have been reported in the United States.  However, "local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus has been reported in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and America Samoa." (1.usa.gov/1RvWNAq)  As of March 28, there have been 273 travel associated cases have been found in the U.S., including in Hawaii.  There have been 258 locally acquired cases in Puerto Rico, 10 in the U.S. Virgin Islands & 14 cases in the American Samoas.  

 

How is Zika Virus Transmitted?

It is most commonly transmitted by a mosquito bite.  It can also be sexually transmitted and via blood transfusion. It is unknown how common sexual or blood transmission is among humans.

Can Zika Virus Be Sexually Transmitted?

Yes.  The CDC recently reported on February 2, that this virus was sexually transmitted in Texas, USA (cnn.it/1WSuiRd).  In addition, Florida confirmed on March 9 & California confirmed on March 25, that they too have had their first case of sexually transmitted Zika Virus. As a result of confirmed sexual transmission of the virus, the CDC now recommends that if you are a pregnant women whose "male sexual partner has traveled to or lives in an area with active Zika virus transmission, you should abstain from sex or use condoms the right way every time you have vaginal, anal, and oral sex for the duration of the pregnancy."  The case in Texas did not involve pregnancy.  However, keep in mind that this illness can infect anyone.

Other countries, confirmed that they too have had their first case of sexually transmitted Zika Virus.  France confirmed this occurred on February 27.  Chile confirmed firmed this on March 27.  Be aware that more cases and countries are confirming sexual transmission of the virus.

What Can I Do to Prevent Zika Virus?

Use insect repellent, especially when outdoors.  Avoid travel to areas with active Zika Virus transmission.  If you cannot avoid travel to an area with active transmission, then practice abstinence or use birth control while traveling in that area.  Abstain from sex if your partner has traveled to an area with active transmission.  

What Insect Repellent is Best to Zika Virus Infection?

The CDC recommends the use of insect repellents with active ingredients registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use to be applied to skin and clothing.  EPA registered insect repellents contain DEET, picaridin, IR3535, and some oil of lemon eucalyptus and para-menthane-diol.  Insect repellents with these active ingredients products offer longer-lasting protection.  Insect repellents containing oil of lemon eucalyptus should not to be used on children under the age of three years.  Insect repellents can be used by pregnant and nursing women.  The CDC has many details about use, efficacy, and safety of insect repellents available at 1.usa.gov/25rRxr1.

I'm Worried Myself or My Child Might Have Zika Virus.  What Should I Do?

First, know the symptoms.  Typically, at a minimum, an infected person may have a low grade fever which is frequently accompanied by and a rash.  Next, contact your doctor.  If your doctor is concerned that you or your child might be infected with Zika Virus, they will advise you to schedule an appointment for a more detailed evaluation.  Lastly, if your doctor thinks that you may need to be tested for Zika Virus, then your doctor will refer you to your local health department.  Currently, only local health departments have testing for the Zika Virus. 

Is There a Travel Advisory Due to Zika Virus? 

Yes. There is a Alert Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions in areas with active transmission (1.usa.gov/1MMaER1).  There is not yet a Warning Level 3, Avoid Nonessential Travel for areas with active transmission.

I'm Not Pregnant & Plan to Travel to an Area with Zika Virus.  Is There Anything I Should Do?

It is advised to not travel to areas with the Zika Virus.  However, if you do travel to an area where Zika Virus is present, then use insect repellent at all times, especially when outdoors.  It is also recommended that if you are a women that is not currently pregnant, that you take birth control as it is estimated that 50% of all pregnancies are estimated to be unplanned.

I'm Pregnant and I've Traveled to an Area with Zika Virus.  What Should I Do?

Talk to your OB/GYN doctor before any travel, especially if you are traveling to an area with active Zika Virus transmission. Follow up with a phone call with your doctor immediately upon return.  Depending upon your experience or exposure, they may have additional recommendations for you and your unborn baby.

Is a Vaccine for Zika Virus Available?

Not yet.  However, there is work on a vaccine.  As of February, the National Institutes for Health (NIH) has stated that Zika Virus Vaccine trials will begin this summer (wapo.st/1pTCPZO).  They have built upon research on similar viruses, Dengue and West Nile.  They are likely to be able to do a small scale trial of about 20 to 30 people in Summer 2016 with large scale trials likely to occur in 2017.  Until a Zika Virus Vaccine is available, use insect repellent, travel with caution, if pregnant prevent exposure in your travel and with your sexual partner. 

 

15
Jan

I Am Everything Affirmation

I Am Everything Affirmation

I Am Everything Affirmation

14
Jan

New Logo

Dr. Silva: Tots, Tweens & Teens - New Logo, tree, growth, lifeI am proud and very pleased to announce the new logo for Dr. Silva: Tots, Tweens & Teens. The tree demonstrates the blessed and special journey that we are able to share with our children.  A tree is a symbol of life.  The strong roots represent the growth in our children and our inner selves. The colorful and vibrant leaves represent the bustling energy and potential in our children and ourselves. The yellow leaf is the brightest leaf which is reaching upwards as is the most special and positive aspect of every child inside.

30
Oct

Ebola Virus

ebola - imageedit_14_3363191172

What is Ebola? 

Ebola is a virus that was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in Africa. Sporadic outbreaks have occurred in Africa since then. There are five (5) strains of Ebola that infect animals in Africa. Four of the strains infect humans.

 

What are the Signs & Symptoms of Ebola?

Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, unexplained bleeding or bruising.  Ebola can only be spread when symptoms begin. Symptoms typically occur between 8 to 10 days after infection.  However, symptoms may occur as late as 21 days after exposure to Ebola. 

 

How is Ebola Spread?

If a person is ill with Ebola virus, they can spread it by blood, body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen).  It can also be transmitted via objects contaminated with the virus (like needles and syringes). Lastly, it can spread via infected bats, apes, gorillas, and monkeys. (http://1.usa.gov/1rCptdl)

 

Where is the Ebola Outbreak? Where Has Ebola Spread?

This year is the largest Ebola outbreak in history.  It has taken place largely in West Africa.  Currently, areas designated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as having widespread transmission of Ebola are in West Africa, specifically Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.  Countries that have had travel associated transmission and local transmission are (Port Harcourt and Lagos) Nigeria, (Madrid) Spain, and (Dallas and New York City), New York.  Countries that have had travel associated transmission are (Kayes) Mali and (Dakar) Senegal.

 

Are there are recent updates in Florida?

As of October 26, 2014, Florida Governor Scott issued an order mandating the Department of Health to have a 21 day monitoring of anyone who has returned from areas where individuals have been infected by Ebola virus, as designated by the CDC. (http://bit.ly/1wH4o6M) New York, New Jersey, Illinois and now Florida have instituted a 21 day health evaluation plan. Twice daily monitoring is to include measuring temperature twice daily.  Gov. Scott also stated that if individuals monitored are assessed to be high-risk, then a mandatory quarantine will be required.

 

Are There U.S. Guidelines for Healthcare Workers Caring for Patients with Ebola?

The CDC has issued guidelines for healthcare workers and healthcare settings for those caring for patients infected with, suspected to be infected with, or having died of Ebola. (http://1.usa.gov/1yJblVf) There are also CDC Ebola waste management guidelines. On October 14, 2014, the CDC admitted that they were unprepared for Ebola in the U.S. (http://bit.ly/1E4V6F4)  Since then, the CDC has formed the previously mentioned guidelines.  

 

Are there flight Restrictions from Africa?

As of October 21, 2014, the U.S. Homeland security Department announced that travelers from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone have limited airport entry into the U.S.  They are limited to five (5)  international airports in New York, New Jersey, Atlanta, Chicago, and Washington, DC.  These airports will have extra screening of passengers for possible Ebola exposure, which include taking temperatures and other assessments as well.  All U.S. airports are screen for possible Ebola exposure. (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/pdf/ebola-algorithm.pdf)  Currently, there is no travel ban from or to Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone to U.S. due to Ebola.

 

It is highly unlikely that Ebola will spread in the U.S. as it has in endemic West Africa. However, we must keep a vigilant eye on developments, travel screenings are necessary, and healthcare workers must follow CDC guidelines to prevent spread of this disease.

 

8
Oct

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)

enterovirus - 2014-1008 -imageedit_7_9044717870What is Enterovirus D68?

Enterovirus is a non-polio virus that was first discovered in California in 1962. (http://1.usa.gov/1rVzPYU) It typically exists during the Summer and Fall, with frequency of the virus decreasing in late Fall.  

 

Where is Enterovirus D68 in the United States in 2014?

This year, Enterovirus D68 is documented with severe respiratory illness in the United States. Currently, the Centers for Disease control (CDC) or state labs have confirmed 628 people infected with this virus in 44 states and the District of Columbia.  Yesterday, the Florida Department of Health confirmed Florida's first Enterovirus D68 infection in a 10 year old girl from Polk county who was treated in Hillsborough County at Tampa General Hospital one (1) month ago for six (6) days. (http://on.wtsp.com/ZQzSw3)  The reality is that Enterovirus D68 is everywhere.

 

Enterovirus D68 Updates:

Update 10/8/14: Enterovirus D68 appears to be winding down.  Fewer severe respiratory illnesses reported last week.  Peak was three (3) weeks ago. (http://usat./1vUOJPz)

Update 10/16/14: CDC new rRT-PCR test for Enterovirus D68 allows more rapid test for the more than 1,000 remaining specimens from since mid-Sept. (http://bit.ly/ZC9JzW).  This will result in an increased number of positive results.  However, this will be for past infections, not recent ones.  Enterovirus D68 still appears to be winding down.  

 

What Are the Symptoms of Enterovirus D68?

Enterovirus is typically misdiagnosed as a common cold, rhinovirus, RSV, or the flu. Typical symptoms include those of cold symptoms, runny nose, cough, sneezing, and achiness.  In more severe cases, wheezing and difficulty breathing has occurred. There have been four (4) deaths associated with Enterovirus. (http://1.usa.gov/1yLuo52)  In addition, the Colorado Health Department reports that partial paralysis has occurred in 12 Colorado children infected with Enterovirus D68. (http://dpo.st/1CTtJgp)  The CDC is investigating the deaths and the potential paralysis link. 

 

Who's at Highest Risk for Contracting Enterovirus D68?

Infants, children, and teenagers are at highest risk for contracting the disease as they have not had sufficient exposure and therefore immunity against this virus.  Those who have asthma and reactive airway disease are at higher risk to have more severe symptoms and illness from the virus.

 

How Do I Prevent Enterovirus D68?

•Hand washing, hand washing, and hand washing! Hand sanitizers are not effective in prevention.  This virus spreads by cough, sneeze, or touching an infected surface.  

•Non-alcohol disinfectants are effective. However, hand washing is still the best.

•Keep your sick child home.  This is very important to prevent the spread of this virus. Remember, in some, this virus acts like the common cold.  However, if your child spreads it to someone else, the child may develop more severe symptoms.

•Cough and sneeze into your elbow.

•Clean commonly used surfaces (countertops, door knobs, toys, etc) with bleach water.

 

When Should I See a Doctor?

If you or your child have asthma or reactive airway disease, develop cold symptoms, fever, wheezing or shortness of breath, then go see a doctor.  

 

What is the Treatment for Enterovirus D68?

There is no cure for this virus.  There is supportive care.  The sooner you or your child receive supportive care, the better the outcome. That being said, it doesn't mean that the moment you or your child gets sick, you should run to the pediatrician.  However, if you or your child has asthma or reactive airway disease, become ill with fever, cold symptoms, is wheezing or short of breath, your pediatrician should examine your child.

Enterovirus D68 is most commonly a mild disease.  However, this year, it has become a scary one.  Knowing your child's health, closely observing them if they are ill, and follow-up care with your pediatrician will help in the treatment of Enteovirus D68, so it won't terrify you.

8
Oct

Good Choices Affirmation

Good Choices Affirmation

Good Choices Affirmation

28
Jul

Postpartum Depression

postpartum depressionRecently, I became a mother once again.  Once again, this baby had severe reflux.  Once again, our life was turned upside down.  Yes, a new baby will do that.  A sick new baby that cries and writhes in pain for hours and hours on end will do that big time.
 
I am grateful, very grateful for another healthy baby.  It's just hard, really, really hard to recover from a c-section, help a baby in pain & still be a mother to another child.  After all, the world keeps spinning; homework needs to be done and the home still needs upkeep.
 
Hormonally, I was also emotional. I was feeling sad at what was & sad at what is now.  Yet, I was grateful.  And I was keenly aware that it would all get better.   In fact, it would be better than before. So, why did I still get moments of sadness?  Suddenly, it dawned on me that once again, I had the Baby Blues.  I had it after the birth of my son.  It lasted about 3 weeks before I improved.  And I  finally returned to "me" at 6 weeks postpartum.  It may not seem like a long time.  However, when your mind is stuck in a trap, it feels never-ending.  Support of family and friends has been critical to my sanity.  Without it, I'd suffer so much more.  So, here's a big thank you to all who have helped in many little and big ways.
 
This is just a reminder to all new moms and dads to be aware of the Baby Blues, Postpartum Depression & even the not-so-common Postpartum Psychosis.  The Baby Blues typically last about 1-2 weeks and start within the first few days after delivery. Postpartum Depression typically lasts longer than 3 weeks.  Also, Postpartum Depression may not start immediately after birth; it and can start anywhere from 6-12 months after delivery.
 
Be watchful of the signs of Postpartum Depression.  If you or the new mom is showing any signs of depression, loss of appetite, or difficulty sleeping even when baby us asleep, consider discussing it with her OB/GYN or her regular doctor. There is help available.  Also get help from those around you. Meals, kind words & reassurance can make a big difference.
 
For more information about Baby Blues and Postpartum Depression, including signs and symptoms and available treatment options, please go to http://bit.ly/Qc9wj5.
24
Jul

Imagination Affirmation

Imagination Affirmation

Imagination Affirmation

21
Jul

Concussions in Football and Children

imageedit_4_8211374059 - concussions in football and childrenChildren in Football and Other High Impact Sports

In the July 7, 2014 issue of People magazine, there was an article called, "6-Year-Old Football Players, Too Young to Tackle?"  The article discusses the Tri-County Titans, a competitive tackle football team in the Texas Youth Football Association.  What makes the Tri-County Titans so unique? They are a team comprised of 6 year olds.  They were highlighted on Friday Night Tykes, a TV show on Esquire Network.  There's been a lot of controversy regarding these elementary kids playing football.  So what's wrong with 6 year olds playing football?  Nothing, except, these young kids are playing tackle football.  While the article discusses the potentially negative impact of competitive football among elementary school kids, I would like to focus on an important issue, concussions in football and children.
 

Concussions & Concussion Symptoms

A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury that typically occurs when there is a sudden movement of the brain due to an injury such as a blow to the head, a jarring of the head, or a fall.  Concussion symptoms can be various and linger.  Symptoms may include disordered thinking, memory loss, dizziness, headaches, blurred vision, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, difficulty sleeping, and more.  There are new guidelines for returning to sports after a concussion.  These serve to promote brain healing and  prevent additional injury.
 

Concussions in Children

Concussions and other injuries are more likely to occur with tackle football than flag football.  Concussions have a huge impact for children.  The reality is that once someone has had a concussion, they are more likely to have additional concussions. Repeated concussions are repeated brain injuries.  What does that mean for the brain?  It increases the likelihood of chronic lifelong brain damage.  What does that mean to our youth?  The younger the child has a concussion, the more likely they are to have more concussions in their sports lifetime.  The growing brain in the child with repeated concussions is uniquely susceptible to brain damage with prolonged effects, especially if the family and child are planning a life with many years of football or high-impact sports participation.
 

Traumatic Brain Injury

Concussions have come to public attention in recent years due to all of the attention received by concussions in the NFL.  Many NFL players have lifelong effects from repeated concussions.  In 2013, there was a  "$765 million settlement over concussion-related brain injuries among its 18,000 retired players, agreeing to compensate victims, pay for medical exams and underwrite research."   Repeated concussions can cause a degenerative brain disease called Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE).  CTE can manifest as Alzheimer's, dementia, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease.  Measures are being taken in the medical and school communities to help prevent our children from getting concussions during all sports, not just football. Doctors, coaches, and parents are also more aware of concussion symptoms.
 

Support & Resources

If your child suffers a sports related injury, make sure to go to his or her doctor.  Also, make sure your child receives an extra exam that clears him or her to return to their sport.  More importantly,even before a potential injury occurs, make sure you know the facts about concussions.  Make sure your children's school and coaches know the facts as well.  The CDC has many concussion education resources available, such as "A Fact Sheet for Teachers, Counselors, and School Professionals."  They've even created an "Heads Up" app to help parents identify concussion or traumatic brain injury symptoms.  For more support and resources about concussions, concussion symptoms, and treatment, please refer to the  CDC concussion support website.
14
Jul

Music is Good for You

We saw Despicable Me 2 last summer.  I must say, the fun has continued this summer even after we saw the movie.  My son loved the "Happy" song in it.  (Click here for the YouTube video, http://bit.ly/1c7vfBJ.) He asked me to get it for him.  As it turns out, I downloaded the entire soundtrack.  There were several good songs that he & I each liked.  It was more cost-effective to download it in its entirety. I didn't think we'd benefit from the whole soundtrack, but I downloaded it anyway.
 
Funny thing is, we've been singing and dancing a lot to it.  Well to be honest, I do most of the singing, while he does most of the dancing.  Our favorites are "Happy" by Pharell Williams, the "Irish Drinking Song" & "I Swear," both sung by Minions. "I Swear" is a cover of the Boys 2 Men song.  It's hysterical partly because it sounds like they are saying "underwear." Seeing my son act out moves while belting out "underwear" makes me laugh and brings a smile to my face that lasts quite a while.
 
Music definitely has mental and physical benefits (http://bit.ly/15KC9qK). Laughter does too (http://bit.ly/17voulc). Music & laughter increase our antibody production. They also decrease our cortisol levels.  Cortisol is a stress hormone, so lowering it naturally decreases your stress level. These are great boosts to our immune system. Other benefits include improved blood pressure and flow, positive impact on blood sugar, less aggressive behavior, increased coping skills, and improved socialization.
 
Personally, There are many great aspects of laughing, singing, and dancing.  The best part is the happiness together.  It's fun, silly, unscripted quality time together.  It's super funny when my husband joins in, all 6'4" of him hopping and spinning in a circle on one foot while clapping at the same time.
 
My favorite lyrics of "Happy" are:
"Clap your hands, if you feel like a room without a roof.
Clap your hands, if you know that happiness is the truth.
Clap your hands, if know what happiness is to you.
Clap your hands, if you feel like that's what you wanna do."
 
In these serious times, it's important to have a reminder to be happy.  It can be as simple as a song.  It cost $1.29 to download.  And I can honestly say, it's definitely worth it. Simple silly times filled with song and dance, are happy priceless moments.
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