30
Oct

Ebola Virus

ebola - imageedit_14_3363191172

What is Ebola? 

Ebola is a virus that was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in Africa. Sporadic outbreaks have occurred in Africa since then. There are five (5) strains of Ebola that infect animals in Africa. Four of the strains infect humans.

 

What are the Signs & Symptoms of Ebola?

Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, unexplained bleeding or bruising.  Ebola can only be spread when symptoms begin. Symptoms typically occur between 8 to 10 days after infection.  However, symptoms may occur as late as 21 days after exposure to Ebola. 

 

How is Ebola Spread?

If a person is ill with Ebola virus, they can spread it by blood, body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen).  It can also be transmitted via objects contaminated with the virus (like needles and syringes). Lastly, it can spread via infected bats, apes, gorillas, and monkeys. (http://1.usa.gov/1rCptdl)

 

Where is the Ebola Outbreak? Where Has Ebola Spread?

This year is the largest Ebola outbreak in history.  It has taken place largely in West Africa.  Currently, areas designated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as having widespread transmission of Ebola are in West Africa, specifically Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.  Countries that have had travel associated transmission and local transmission are (Port Harcourt and Lagos) Nigeria, (Madrid) Spain, and (Dallas and New York City), New York.  Countries that have had travel associated transmission are (Kayes) Mali and (Dakar) Senegal.

 

Are there are recent updates in Florida?

As of October 26, 2014, Florida Governor Scott issued an order mandating the Department of Health to have a 21 day monitoring of anyone who has returned from areas where individuals have been infected by Ebola virus, as designated by the CDC. (http://bit.ly/1wH4o6M) New York, New Jersey, Illinois and now Florida have instituted a 21 day health evaluation plan. Twice daily monitoring is to include measuring temperature twice daily.  Gov. Scott also stated that if individuals monitored are assessed to be high-risk, then a mandatory quarantine will be required.

 

Are There U.S. Guidelines for Healthcare Workers Caring for Patients with Ebola?

The CDC has issued guidelines for healthcare workers and healthcare settings for those caring for patients infected with, suspected to be infected with, or having died of Ebola. (http://1.usa.gov/1yJblVf) There are also CDC Ebola waste management guidelines. On October 14, 2014, the CDC admitted that they were unprepared for Ebola in the U.S. (http://bit.ly/1E4V6F4)  Since then, the CDC has formed the previously mentioned guidelines.  

 

Are there flight Restrictions from Africa?

As of October 21, 2014, the U.S. Homeland security Department announced that travelers from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone have limited airport entry into the U.S.  They are limited to five (5)  international airports in New York, New Jersey, Atlanta, Chicago, and Washington, DC.  These airports will have extra screening of passengers for possible Ebola exposure, which include taking temperatures and other assessments as well.  All U.S. airports are screen for possible Ebola exposure. (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/pdf/ebola-algorithm.pdf)  Currently, there is no travel ban from or to Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone to U.S. due to Ebola.

 

It is highly unlikely that Ebola will spread in the U.S. as it has in endemic West Africa. However, we must keep a vigilant eye on developments, travel screenings are necessary, and healthcare workers must follow CDC guidelines to prevent spread of this disease.

 

8
Oct

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)

enterovirus - 2014-1008 -imageedit_7_9044717870What is Enterovirus D68?

Enterovirus is a non-polio virus that was first discovered in California in 1962. (http://1.usa.gov/1rVzPYU) It typically exists during the Summer and Fall, with frequency of the virus decreasing in late Fall.  

 

Where is Enterovirus D68 in the United States in 2014?

This year, Enterovirus D68 is documented with severe respiratory illness in the United States. Currently, the Centers for Disease control (CDC) or state labs have confirmed 628 people infected with this virus in 44 states and the District of Columbia.  Yesterday, the Florida Department of Health confirmed Florida's first Enterovirus D68 infection in a 10 year old girl from Polk county who was treated in Hillsborough County at Tampa General Hospital one (1) month ago for six (6) days. (http://on.wtsp.com/ZQzSw3)  The reality is that Enterovirus D68 is everywhere.

 

Enterovirus D68 Updates:

Update 10/8/14: Enterovirus D68 appears to be winding down.  Fewer severe respiratory illnesses reported last week.  Peak was three (3) weeks ago. (http://usat./1vUOJPz)

Update 10/16/14: CDC new rRT-PCR test for Enterovirus D68 allows more rapid test for the more than 1,000 remaining specimens from since mid-Sept. (http://bit.ly/ZC9JzW).  This will result in an increased number of positive results.  However, this will be for past infections, not recent ones.  Enterovirus D68 still appears to be winding down.  

 

What Are the Symptoms of Enterovirus D68?

Enterovirus is typically misdiagnosed as a common cold, rhinovirus, RSV, or the flu. Typical symptoms include those of cold symptoms, runny nose, cough, sneezing, and achiness.  In more severe cases, wheezing and difficulty breathing has occurred. There have been four (4) deaths associated with Enterovirus. (http://1.usa.gov/1yLuo52)  In addition, the Colorado Health Department reports that partial paralysis has occurred in 12 Colorado children infected with Enterovirus D68. (http://dpo.st/1CTtJgp)  The CDC is investigating the deaths and the potential paralysis link. 

 

Who's at Highest Risk for Contracting Enterovirus D68?

Infants, children, and teenagers are at highest risk for contracting the disease as they have not had sufficient exposure and therefore immunity against this virus.  Those who have asthma and reactive airway disease are at higher risk to have more severe symptoms and illness from the virus.

 

How Do I Prevent Enterovirus D68?

•Hand washing, hand washing, and hand washing! Hand sanitizers are not effective in prevention.  This virus spreads by cough, sneeze, or touching an infected surface.  

•Non-alcohol disinfectants are effective. However, hand washing is still the best.

•Keep your sick child home.  This is very important to prevent the spread of this virus. Remember, in some, this virus acts like the common cold.  However, if your child spreads it to someone else, the child may develop more severe symptoms.

•Cough and sneeze into your elbow.

•Clean commonly used surfaces (countertops, door knobs, toys, etc) with bleach water.

 

When Should I See a Doctor?

If you or your child have asthma or reactive airway disease, develop cold symptoms, fever, wheezing or shortness of breath, then go see a doctor.  

 

What is the Treatment for Enterovirus D68?

There is no cure for this virus.  There is supportive care.  The sooner you or your child receive supportive care, the better the outcome. That being said, it doesn't mean that the moment you or your child gets sick, you should run to the pediatrician.  However, if you or your child has asthma or reactive airway disease, become ill with fever, cold symptoms, is wheezing or short of breath, your pediatrician should examine your child.

Enterovirus D68 is most commonly a mild disease.  However, this year, it has become a scary one.  Knowing your child's health, closely observing them if they are ill, and follow-up care with your pediatrician will help in the treatment of Enteovirus D68, so it won't terrify you.

8
Oct

Good Choices Affirmation

Good Choices Affirmation

Good Choices Affirmation

Back to Top